Patterns are generally taught in isolation (separation of concerns), but application of patterns is often highly interconnected. Here I’ll show how my most used patterns come together as a design system.

As a reminder, patterns are named solutions to common problems in software. They level up developers by reducing complexity, and compactly communicating intent.

High-level structure

Service-to-service diagram

The overall program structure is ruled by dependency inversion. The major components are services, and each service builds up an abstract set of dependencies know as ports. Ports are often strategies or observers. The service ports are then implemented by adapters, which fit other services into the port’s interface. Sometimes a decorator will wrap an adapter to add cross-cutting concerns like logging, authorization, failure/retry policies, or indirect communication protocols.

Service Internal Design

Service internals

Each service defines it’s input and output data as entities, value-types, or primitives. Input is validated using a specification and usually becomes the input to some business flow represented as a state machine. The state machine produces a new state which is returned to the caller. The output states are fed to an interpreter which aligns the global persistent state with the changes.

Services might instead focus on a complex computation or transformation of the data, in which strategies might be used to compose or swap different transforms.

Review of Patterns

In review

  • Dependency Inversion keeps the overall structure flexible by turning service dependencies into pluggable abstractions. Most often achieved through constructor injection
    • Strategies are a common port for swapping out different computations or operations. Can also be used internally by a service for modularizing complex computations.
    • Observers are a common port for notifying other services of internal events
    • Adapters map ports to existing implementations in other services or 3rd party libraries while keeping port definitions independent
    • Decorators can compose tangential concerns like authorization into ports instead of baking those decision into the service or each adapter.
  • Most data falls into two categories
    • Entities represent any data that has a identity beyond it’s current values. Generally distinguished by an Id property.
    • Value-types represent any data that is defined by it’s current values (no Id)
  • State Machines effectively encode flows that have decisions or multiple possible states (which is most of them). State machines can be drawn and understood by all stakeholders and often reveal missing requirements through unhandled possible state transitions. Useful fact, any program can be written as repeated calls to a state machine.
  • Specifications define what data should look like. They are useful for validation, but also for generating test data.
  • Interpreter encodes operations as data structures. Different interpreters can decide how to enact the operation data at a later time. Interpreting state changes improves transactional consistency of the domain and can also replace most observers.


Patterns, even in isolation, raise our level of discourse and deliver robust solutions to common problems. However, patterns often interact in non-additive ways.

Here I’ve shown how I compose common patterns into a whole-system structure.