Measurement – The types and amount of insights we extract on our students current understanding
Tools: Concept Inventories, Self-Assessments, Diagnostic Assessments, Brainstorming, Assignment Error Patterns
Frequency – How often and how many feedback-practices cycles are facilitated for a skill. High-frequency is better, but equipping and expecting students to handle more feedback cycles independently facilitates self-learning.
Tools: Structured Peer Review, Self-Assessment Strategies, Practice Plans, Practice Journals, Project Checkpoints
Clarity – The degree to which we define expected outcomes, seek blind spots, and communicate expectations
Tools: Rubrics, Checklists, Advance Organizers, Class Rules, Consistent Grading, Syllabi, Office Hours/how and when they may approach you for help
Climate – The feel of our classroom. In general, the goal is to be supportive and make it safe to fail
Tools: Class Rules, Validate Different Viewpoints, Demonstrate Failure, Success/Failure Attribution, Encouragement-Focus, Clarity
Challenge – The gap between a student’s current skill and the current task
Tools: Measures, Interest Curves, Scaffolding
Support/Input – The degree to which we remove concerns for students. Should be reduced as students improve mastery
Tools: Frequency, Scaffolding, Modeling
Attribution – How success and failure are explained. Students do best when they attribute success to internal causes (ability or effort) and failure to preventable causes (lack of effort or missing info).
Tools: Feedback, Early Success Opportunities, Encouragement-Focus
Alignment – the degree to which our dimensions of control agree with the desired goal/outcome
Tools: Clarity, Measurement, Peer Feedback, Insightful people in different disciplines