Measurement – The types and amount of insights we extract on our students current understanding

Tools: Concept Inventories, Self-Assessments, Diagnostic Assessments, Brainstorming, Assignment Error Patterns

Frequency – How often and how many feedback-practices cycles are facilitated for a skill. High-frequency is better, but equipping and expecting students to handle more feedback cycles independently facilitates self-learning.

Tools: Structured Peer Review, Self-Assessment Strategies, Practice Plans, Practice Journals, Project Checkpoints

Clarity – The degree to which we define expected outcomes, seek blind spots, and communicate expectations

Tools: Rubrics, Checklists, Advance Organizers, Class Rules, Consistent Grading, Syllabi, Office Hours/how and when they may approach you for help

Climate – The feel of our classroom. In general, the goal is to be supportive and make it safe to fail

Tools: Class Rules, Validate Different Viewpoints, Demonstrate Failure, Success/Failure Attribution, Encouragement-Focus, Clarity

Challenge – The gap between a student’s current skill and the current task

Tools: Measures, Interest Curves, Scaffolding

Support/Input – The degree to which we remove concerns for students. Should be reduced as students improve mastery

Tools: Frequency, Scaffolding, Modeling

Attribution – How success and failure are explained. Students do best when they attribute success to internal causes (ability or effort) and failure to preventable causes (lack of effort or missing info).

Tools: Feedback, Early Success Opportunities, Encouragement-Focus

Alignment – the degree to which our dimensions of control agree with the desired goal/outcome

Tools: Clarity, Measurement, Peer Feedback, Insightful people in different disciplines